Website designed by Basha O'Reilly
Note 1. Lady Wentworth, Thoroughbred Racing Stock
(London, 1938) p. 49
Note 2. The Western Horseman
(Lafayette, Cal. Vol. I, No. 3) p. 25 (Vol. III, No. 1) p. 21.
Note 3. A. E. Wiggam, The Fruit of
the Family Tree (Indianapolis, 1924) pp 13, 14.
Note 4. "Men who have been in
action in our own times will tell you that a wounded horse gives in at
once, that he seems to have no heart." Basil Tozer, The Horse in
History (New York, 1908), p. 105.
Note 5. Cordoba, the
great horse breeding region of Spain, was accessible to the ports of departure
for America. R. B. Cunninghame Graham,
Horses of the Conquest (originally published in London, 1930,
republished by The Long Riders' Guild Press in 2004). p. 131.
Note 6. Translated
from the French of Le Sieur de Solleysel, Equyer. Le Parfait Maréchal,
2nd Part, p. 295. Edition 1775. First published in 1664, this work
passed through many editions; was translated into several languages and
was borrowed for more than a century by different writers. Sir W. Hopes,
Compleat Horseman, 1696, is a translation from Solleysel by a pupil.
(Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. XXIV, p. 198.)
Note 7. All agreements entered into by the various
Conquistadores with Charles V and Philip II had a clause binding them to take a
quota both of horses and mares. (Graham, op. cit., p. 110) So far
as mares are concerned this must apply more particularly to expeditions
contemplating settlement for Francis Haines points out (American Anthropologist,
Vol. 40, No. 3, p. 429) that few mares were used in actual exploration.
This is borne out by Coronado's original muster roll which lists 588 horses only
2 of which were mares. (Western Horseman, May-June, 1938, p. 19;
quoting letter of Prof. Arthur S. Aiton who discovered the muster roll)
Note 8. Baguales were South American wild
horses descended from the horses and mares Mendoza abandoned in 1535 - mostly
bays to which color they had reverted after 300 years. Parti-colored wild
horses are not true Baguales as the latter became extinct as much as 100 years
ago. (Graham, op. cit. pp. 114-115)
Note 9. de
León's discovery of Florida in 1512 and his brief excursion therein is not
pertinent to the subject in hand
Note 10. Herbert E. Bolton, The Spanish Borderlands
(New Haven, 1921), p. 11
Note 11. In the first years
of the Conquest it was common to pay from 3000-4000 pesos (c. $1400-$1850) for a
horse, but they bred so rapidly in the New World that the price dropped very
materially within a comparatively short time. James A. Robertson, Some
Notes on the Transfer by Spain of Plants and Animals to its Colonies Overseas
(James Sprunt Historical Studies, Vol. XIX, 1927), p. 10
Note 12. Bolton, op. cit., p. 11.
Note 18. Several voyages were made for exploration only; that of Miruelo, 1516-1519; and that of Penedo, 1519, along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico; Gordillo and Quexos, 1521-1522 and Gomez, 1525, over somewhat varying courses. (H. I. Priestley, The Luna Papers. 1559-1561. Florida State Historical Society. Vol. I, Deland, Florida, 1928, p. XIX.
Note 19. Tristan de Luna Y Arellano had been Captain of Horse in the Coronado Expedition to Cibola. (Ibid., p. XXV,)
Note 20. Ibid. pp. XXVIII, XXIX, XXXIV, XXXV, XL. Most of Luna's Cavalry was enlisted outside of Mexico City, in Oaxaca, Los Zacatecas and Pueblo. The expedition set out with scant funds as they had expended their private resources to the amount of 300,000 pesos for armour and horses etc. (Ibid. pp. XXIX, XXXI.)
Note 21. Ibid. pp. XXVIII, XXIX, XXXIV, XXXV, XL.
Note 22. Ibid., p. 209
Note 23. Ibid. p. 101.
Note 24. Ibid. p. 121
Note 25. Ibid., p. 113. The bracketed words are part of the quotation.
Note 26. Ibid. p. 213.
Note 27. Ibid. Vol. II, p. 121.
Note 28. Ibid. p. 195.
Note 29. Bolton, op. cit., Chap. V.
Note 30. Bolton, op. cit., Chap. V.
Note 31. Woodbury Lowery, The Spanish Settlements in the United States, Florida 1562-1574 (London and New York, 1905), p. 143.
Note 32. Ibid. pp. 151, 152.
Note 33. Ibid. pp. 163, 164.
Note 34. Justin Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America, Vol. I (Cambridge, Mass., 1899), pp. 282, 283.
Note 35. J. T. Connor, Colonial Records of Spanish Florida, Vol. 2 (Florida State Historical Society, Deland, 1925), p. XXVI.
Note 36. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 299.
Note 37. Ibid., Vol. I, pp. 87, 89, 93, 97.
Note 38. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 97.
Note 39. Ibid. Vol. II, p. 225.
Note 40. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 255
Note 41. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 279. (Italics are mine.)
Note 42. Ibid., Vol. II, pp. 319, 320.
Note 43. H. I. Priestley, The Coming of the White Man (New York, 1929), p. 324. Robertson, op. cit., pp. 10, 11.
Note 44. Connor, op cit., Vol. I, p. 97; Vol. II, pp. xxvi, 279.
Note 45. Verner W. Crane, Southern Frontier (Philadelphia, 1929) pp. 3-5.
Note 46. J. D. G. Shea, Missions among the Indian Tribes of the United States (New York, 1855), Chaps. II, III.
Note 47. Ibid., Chaps. II, III.
Note 48. Brown, op. cit. Vol. I, pp. 328, 408. Charles M. Andrews, The Colonial Period of American History. Settlements (New Haven, 1934), pp. 111, 113.
Note 49. General Edward McCrady, Colonial Development. S. Carolina (Charleston, 1897) Id., The History of South Carolina under the Proprietary Government, 1670-1719 (New York, 1897), pp. 8-10. Crane, op. cit. pp. 3-5.
Note 50. Fairfax Harrison, The John's Island Stud, 1750-1788 (Richmond, Va., 1931), p. 167.
Note 51. F. B. Culver, Blooded Horses of Colonial Days (Washington, 1922) p. 131.
© COPYRIGHT 2001 - 2014